Archive for May 2011
didn’t find the time so far to post a short blog about HITB Amsterdam so far… but here we go.
Unfortunately I couldn’t arrive in AMS earlier than Thursday evening so I missed the first day (and – from what I heard – some great talks). However we went out for dinner that night with the likes of Andreas (Wiegenstein), Jim (Geovedi), Raoul (Chiesa), Travis (Goodspeed), Claudio (Criscione) and some more guys and I had some quite good conversations, both on technical matters and on Intra-European cultural differences ;-). Btw: thanks again to Martijn for taking care of the restaurant.
On Friday I listened to Travis’ talk on “Building a Promiscuous nRF24L01+ Packet Sniffer” (cool & scary stuff) and a part of this talk on iPhone data protection (well delivered as well). In the afternoon Daniel and I gave an updated version of the “Attacking 3G and 4G Telecommunication Networks ” presentation (the HITB version can be found here). Overall I can say that HITB was an excellently organized event with a great speaker line-up (not sure if we contributed to that one ;-)) and some innovative ideas (inviting a bunch of local hacker spaces among those). Dhillon is a fabulous host and I already regard HITB as one of the major European security events (next to Troopers, of course ;-)).
Have a great weekend everybody
2 Comments | Posted by Enno Rey
A couple of hours ago Christopher (Werny) and I gave this presentation at the Heise IPv6-Kongress, which overall was a quite interesting and well-organized event bringing together a number of practitioners from the field. While yesterday’s talks were dominated by a certain euphoria and optimistic pioneer spirit, the second day featured some security talks which induced slight shadows to the brave new world of IPv6 ;-). I particularly enjoyed meeting Eric Vyncke from Cisco (one of the two authors of this great book) and Marc “van Hauser” Heuse who released a new version of the THC-IPV6 tool set today. We had some fruitful discussions and we took the opportunity to test some of his newly implemented attacks against “RA Guard” running on a 4948E Chris and I had brought for a demo within our talk. Unfortunately – or fortunately in terms of a “from theory to reality” approach – I have to say that Marc found a quite clever way to circumvent RA Guard by putting the actual “RA payload” into a second frame following a first one mostly containing a “long & empty” destination option (after a fragmentation header pointing to the mentioned second one). To get an idea pls see these screenshots from Wireshark.
This actually completely defeats (the current implementation of) RA Guard which means that the victim machine received a whole lot of router advertisments…
Eric who gave an excellent talk on his own (mostly covering defense techniques but, amongst others, describing some interesting attacks against tunnel technologies, which btw reminds me I still owe you a blogpost on those… trust me: it’s not forgotten ;-)) stated that this specific type of attack could be mitigated by using an ACL containing sth along the lines of
deny ip any any undetermined-transport
[which is supposed to match any IPv6 packet where the upper-layer protocol cannot be determined].
We (Christopher and I) weren’t even aware of that keyword and we did not yet have an opportunity to test its effectiveness. Still there’s some immediate lessons to be learned from those hours in Frankfurt:
a) in the field of IPv6 security one can learn something new every day
b) there’s still so much “uncovered space” in the IPv6 (security) world that we’ll certainly see yet-unknown types of attacks in the next years.
c) Marc is a really smart guy (which prompted me inviting him to speak at next year’s Troopers ;-))
d) Going with ACLs on “access layer”/customer/subscriber facing ports might be the better approach than just using RA Guard. (on a related note: some Cisco guy I talked to was very sceptical that RA Guard will ever be available on 2900 or 3500 series switches).
Most probably this (, , ) little sequence of IPv6 related posts will be continued soon (but not before we’ve finished the update of the “Attacking 3G and 4G networks” talk to be given at HITB Amsterdam next Friday ;-)).
Have a great weekend everybody
I’ve discussed the concept of evaluating the operational “feasibility” (or “impact”, depending on your point of view) of security controls before. Some people approached me asking “which considerations should we take into account when trying to understand or rate this for $SOME_SECURITY_CONTROL?”. Therefore, in the following I’ll give an unordered list of factors to consider to get an understanding of the “operational feasibility” of a given security control. Two things should be noted in advance:
- evaluating the operational “feasibility” (which is “a positive factor”) as opposed to the operational “impact” (being a “negative factor”) allows for easier integration into a metric scheme, as the two main factors-to-considered – the other one is the “security benefit” of a control – can be expressed on the same scale then, with a high value meaning a good thing.
- as the (maturity of) and as-is state of operational processes usually have a much higher impact on the security posture of a given environment than the components deployed in the environment (see this presentation, slide 14ff.), this approach focuses on _operational costs_ and does not take initial investment costs into account. In short: opex is the thing to look at, not capex.
Here we go… for each (potential) security control you might look at:
a) How many lines of code/configuration does it need?
b) Can it be implemented by means of templates or scripts? Effort needed for this?
c) To what degree does the implementation differ in different scenarios (e.g. per system/subnet/site)? Can “the difference” be scripted, e.g. taken from another source (a CMDB) or “calculated” (like the addresses of neighboring routers on the local link)?
d) How much additional configuration is needed to establish the previous functionality/state? E.g. to pass legitimate traffic in case of a (“fresh”) application of ACLs?
e) What’s the “business impact” incl. number of associated support/helpdesk calls?
f) Cost for _deployment_ of additional hardware, licenses or other tangibles. (again, the cost for their initial procurement is capex).
g) In case of a tangible security control think about the full life-cycle management of the asset (patching, monitoring, alerting, capacity management and the like). This one is often heavily overlooked, see for example this excellent blog post of Anton Chuvakin for a discussion of the “real costs of a SIEM deployment”.
h) Does the control require a new operational process or task?
i) Propagation: how far does the (implementation of the) control reach?
j) How many different people or companies/partners (sub contractors) touch the work?
k) Impact on OLAs and SLAs.
The above might give an idea of how to tackle the task of evaluating the operational feasibility. In another, future blogpost I may discuss a sample metric using this stuff from a real-world environment (will have to write down and anonymize some pieces though). For the moment many thanks to Friedwart, Angus and Sergey for valuable input to the above list.
Feel free to contact us (or leave a comment) with suggestions as for additional considerations.
have a good one,
As I’m currently developing the ‘next gen’ state-full fuzzing framework @ERNW [called dizzy, to be released soon ], I will give you an updated set of fuzzing scripts from the ‘old world’.
Some of you will remember the 2008 release of sulley_l2, which was a modified version of the sulley fuzzing framework, enhanced with Layer 2 sending capabilities and a hole bunch of (L2) fuzzing scripts. All the blinking, rebooting, mem-corrupting ciscos gave us some attention. Back from then, we continued to write and use the fuzzing scripts, so the hole collection grew.
Find the latest version of the tool-set here.
If you take a look inside the ‘audits’ folder, you will find all the ERNW made fuzzing scripts. I’ll give you a short description on the most of them:
- ARP – This are some basic ARP fuzzing scripts, mainly as reference L2 implementation, haven’t found anything interesting with them, yet.
- BGP – Some scripts for the basic BGP packet types, has nothing to do with Layer2 but will kill some devices
- CAPWAP – Within our wireless research we also did some wireless mgmt-protocol fuzzing and came up with this scripts. (RFC5415)
- CDP – Fuzzing scripts for Cisco’s discovery protocol. Most fun is gone here, as bugs were submitted and fixed by the time.
- DOT1Q – One of the first L2 fuzzing scripts, building a tagged packet.
- DTP – Fuzzing scripts for Cisco’s dynamic trunking protocol. Thats the one which make Ciscos blink like Christmas-Trees.
- EXTREME – A hand full of scripts targeting Extreme’s discovery protocol, those will create purple stack traces
- GTP – In the 3G / 4G research we did some GPRS tunneling protocol fuzzing, not finished yet.
- IP – Also more a reference implementation.
- ISL – As to be complete with the Vlan tagging there is also a script for Cisco’s ISL.
- LLDP – Those scripts won’t work as expected, if you know why, drop me a mail, you will get dizzy first
- LWAPP – Also output from the wireless research, by that time this one randomly reboots access points.
- OSPF – A script for fuzzing OSPF HELO packets, wont get any further, as sulley knows no state.
- PNRP – Simon’s awesome PNRP fuzzing scripts.
- PVST – Spanning Tree in a few flavors, if you ever need even more of that packets
- SNMP – Right, more like an ASN1 fuzzer, but provided some nice results.
- UDLD – One more L2 protocol with a bunch of strings inside (watch out for the device-id).
- VRRP – while implementing the VRRP attacks in loki, also did some fuzzing, obviously ;).
- VTP – An other L2 based, Cisco only protocol, make devices blinking.
- WLCCP – And the last one is again from our wireless research. Haven’t found anything interesting by fuzzing, but the loki module for this works nice.
So, thats all for now, have fun with the code and stay tuned for more tools on fuzzing to be finished/released soon.